47 maps, 2 appendixes
This volume is the essential guide to the Manassas battlefields, site of two of the Civil War’s critical campaigns. Ethan S. Rafuse, a distinguished scholar of the Civil War, provides a clearly organized, thorough, and uniquely insightful account of both campaigns, along with expert analysis and precise directions for armchair traveler and battlefield visitor alike.
The July 1861 Battle of First Manassas and the August 1862 Battle of Second Manassas unequivocally influenced the course and outcome of the Civil War. The first battle dealt a decisive blow to hopes that the inexperienced armies of the North and the South could bring about a quick military resolution of the secession crisis. The second battle was the climactic engagement of a spectacular campaign that carried the war to the outskirts of Washington DC and marked the coming of age of Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia. Manassas: A Battlefield Guide presents readers with a clear, convenient guide to the sites in northern and central Virginia that shaped the course and outcome of these campaigns. Lucid, concise narratives give readers a better understanding of the events that took place on these battlefields and of the terrain, personalities, and decisions that shaped them.
Ethan S. Rafuse is a professor of history at the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College and has led staff rides and tours of historic battlefields for many military and civilian groups. He is also the author of several books, including Antietam, South Mountain, and Harpers Ferry: A Battlefield Guide (Nebraska, 2008) and McClellan’s War: The Failure of Moderation in the Struggle for the Union.
How to Use This Guide
The Road to First Manassas
Henry Hill Visitor Center
Overview of July 21, 1861
Stop 1 Stone Bridge
1a “The plan . . . was a good one,” July 18–21, 1861
1b A Troubled March, 2:30–9:30 a.m.
1c Demonstration and Crossing, 9:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m.
Stop 2 Matthews Hill
2a Evans Battles Burnside, 9:30–10:00 a.m.
2b “The day is ours!” 10:00–11:30 a.m.
Stop 3 Stone House
3a The Federals Pause, 11:30 a.m.–12:30 p.m.
Stop 4 Henry Hill
4a Battlefield Vista
4b “Like a stone wall,” 11:30 a.m.–2:00 p.m.
4c McDowell Advances His Artillery
4d Griffin’s Ordeal, 2:00–2:30 p.m.
4e Fight for the Federal Guns, 2:30–2:45 p.m.
4f Victory on Henry Hill, 3:00–5:00 p.m.
Stop 5 Chinn Ridge
5a Howard’s Battle, 3:00–4:30 p.m.
Stop 6 Sudley Church
6a The Federal Retreat, 4:30–7:00 p.m.
6b The Cost of the Battle
The Road to Second Manassas
Overview of August 28, 1862
Stop 1 Brawner Farm
1a Brawner Farm Interpretive Center
1b Movement to Contact, August 28, 1862
1c The Battle of Brawner Farm, 6:00–9:00 p.m.
Overview of August 29, 1862
Stop 2 Unfinished Railroad
2a Pope’s Plan for August 29, August 28–29, 1862
2b Sigel Attacks, 10:00 a.m.–1:00 p.m.
2c Lee and Longstreet Arrive, 10:00–12:00 p.m.
2d The Afternoon Battle, 10:00 a.m.–4:30 p.m.
2e Kearny’s Assault, 4:30–6:30 p.m.
Stop 3 Groveton
3a Hood versus Hatch, 6:00–8:00 p.m.
Overview of August 30, 1862
Stop 4 Buck Hill
4a Waiting for Franklin, August 28–30, 1862
4b Morning Plans, 7:00–11:30 p.m.
4c The Pursuit, 11:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m.
Stop 5 Deep Cut
5a Porter’s Attack, 2:30–3:15 p.m.
5b The Deep Cut, 3:15–4:00 p.m.
Stop 6 New York Avenue
6a Longstreet’s Advance, 4:00 p.m.
6b The 5th New York, 4:00–4:15 p.m.
6c Hardin and Kerns, 4:15–4:30 p.m.
Stop 7 Chinn Ridge
7a McLean’s Defense, 4:30–5:00 p.m.
7b Confederate Tide, 5:00–6:00 p.m.
Stop 8 Henry Hill
8a Last Line, 4:30–6:00 p.m.
8b The Fight for Henry Hill, 6:00–7:00 p.m.
8c Securing the Union Retreat, 6:00–7:00 p.m.
8d “Another Bull Run!” 7:00 p.m., August 30–September 2, 1862
First Manassas Campaign Excursion
Stop a Stone Bridge
Stop b Fairfax Court House
Stop c Blackburn’s Ford
Jackson’s Line Excursion
Stop a Jackson’s Arrival
Stop b Keyes’s Advance
Stop c The 33rd Virginia
Stop d Stuart’s Charge
Second Manassas Campaign Excursion
Stop a Cedar Mountain
Stop b Rapidan River
Stop c Remington
Stop d Freeman’s Ford
Stop e Jeffersonton
Stop f Bristoe Station
Stop g Mayfield Fort
Stop h Thoroughfare Gap
Stop a Pleasant Valley Church
Stop b Ox Hill Battlefield Park
Appendix A Orders of Battle
Appendix B Organization, Weapons, and Tactics
For Further Reading