The Salish People and the Lewis and Clark Expedition, Revised Edition

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The Salish People and the Lewis and Clark Expedition, Revised Edition

The Salish-Pend d'Oreille Culture Committee and Elders Cultural Advisory Council, Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes

216 pages
141 photographs, 6 illustrations, 1 map

Paperback

September 2019

978-0-8032-1643-3

$24.95 Add to Cart
Hardcover

September 2019

978-0-8032-4311-8

$34.95 Add to Cart

About the Book

On September 4, 1805, in the upper Bitterroot Valley of what is now western Montana, more than four hundred Salish people were encamped, pasturing horses, preparing for the fall bison hunt, and harvesting chokecherries as they had done for countless generations. As the Lewis and Clark expedition ventured into the territory of a sovereign Native nation, the Salish met the strangers with hospitality and vital provisions while receiving comparatively little in return.
 
For the first time, a Native American community offers an in-depth examination of the events and historical significance of their encounter with the Lewis and Clark expedition. The result is a new understanding of the expedition and its place in the wider context of U.S. history. Through oral histories and other materials, Salish elders recount the details of the Salish encounter with Lewis and Clark: their difficulty communicating with the strangers through multiple interpreters and consequent misunderstanding of the expedition’s invasionary purpose, their discussions about whether to welcome or wipe out the newcomers, their puzzlement over the black skin of the slave York, and their decision to extend traditional tribal hospitality and gifts to the guests.
 
What makes The Salish People and the Lewis and Clark Expedition a startling departure from previous accounts of the Lewis and Clark expedition is how it depicts the arrival of non-Indians—not as the beginning of history but as another chapter in a long tribal history. Much of this book focuses on the ancient cultural landscape and history that had already shaped the region for millennia before the arrival of Lewis and Clark. The elders begin their vivid portrait of the Salish world by sharing creation stories and their traditional cycle of life. The book then takes readers on a cultural tour of the Native trails that the expedition followed. With tribal elders as our guides, we now learn of the Salish cultural landscape that was invisible to Lewis and Clark.
 
The Salish People and the Lewis and Clark Expedition also portrays with new clarity the profound upheaval of the Native world in the century before the expedition's arrival, as tribes in the region were introduced to horses, European diseases, and firearms. The arrival of Lewis and Clark marked the beginning of a heightened level of conflict and loss, and the book details the history that followed the expedition: the opening of Salish territory to the fur trade; the arrival of Jesuit missionaries; the establishment of Indian reservations, the non-Indian development of western Montana; and, more recently, the revival and strengthening of tribal sovereignty and culture.
 
Conveyed by tribal recollections and richly illustrated, The Salish People and the Lewis and Clark Expedition not only sheds new light on the meaning of the expedition; it also illuminates the people who greeted Lewis and Clark and, despite much of what followed, thrive in their homeland today.

Praise

“[A] remarkable and beautifully produced book. . . . It flips the standard lens of history to portray a critical American historical event from the perspective of the Salish people of western Montana. . . . Perhaps the most important reason the authors were able to write such a compelling narrative is the three decades of cultural preservation work, including extensive interviews with tribal elders that have been recorded and stored in the tribal community. This truly beautiful book is a community-based project.”—David R.M. Beck, Oregon Historical Quarterly

“It may provoke some fans of Jefferson and/or the Lewis and Clark expedition to echo the question sometimes attributed to General Custer and Little Big Horn: ‘Where did all these Indians come from?’”—John Goodspeed, The Star-Democrat

“From Elders to authors to publishers, all stress a similar theme—the book finally gives American Indians a chance to tell their own story.”—Peter Bulger, The Missoulian

“The indigenous peoples of the United States have the benefit of a recent view of history. The tradition of oral history is also of great worth. ‘The Salish People’ preserves the viewpoint of the conquered. It also highlights the fact that all Montana’s tribes are at a crossroads. I give this book a thumbs up.”—Billings Outpost

“With this book of sacred texts, legends, and narratives presented with significant scholarly attention and consideration, the Salish people proudly take their place at the academic table. We are treated to an exceptional journey into oralcy and oral history, manifesting a truly unique Native perspective and epistemology.”—Jay Hansford C. Vest, American Indian Quarterly

“[An] informative volume compiled by elders of the affiliated Salish, Pend d’Oreille, and Kootenai tribes. The book is richly illustrated with contemporary and historical art and photography.”—We Proceeded On

Table of Contents

Introduction: Tribal Voices and Tribal History
Part I: The Salish World in 1805
Coyote and the Ice Age: Tribal Creation Stories and Tribal Origins
The Big Picture: Tribal Elders on the Sweep of History from Columbus to Lewis and Clark to the Allotment Act
"This Land Was Good": The Traditional Cycle of Life
A Salish Journey through the Bitterroot Valley (Introduction, Salish-Pend d'Oreille Placenames)
Part 2: The Salish Encounter with the Lewis and Clark Expedition
The Beginning of the Great Changes: Horses, Epidemics, and Guns
The Question of Intent: Salish Perspectives on the Purpose of the Lewis and Clark Expedition
To Help Them or to Wipe Them Out: Stories of Misunderstanding and Miscommunication
Gift-giving and Confusion
Lewis and Clark in the Fold of Tribal History
The Survival and Renewal of Salish and Pend d'Oreille Culture
Elders and Contributors: Biographical Notes and Perspectives
A Brief Guide to Written Salish and the International Phonetic Alphabet by Shirley Trahan
Archival Sources and Abbreviations
Notes
Selected Bibliography
Index
Source Acknowledgments
Charlie Russell's Lewis and Clark Meeting the Indians at Ross' Hole: An Appreciation

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