American Indian Nations from Termination to Restoration, 1953-2006


American Indian Nations from Termination to Restoration, 1953-2006

Roberta Ulrich

334 pages
4 illustrations, 1 table


December 2010


$45.00 Add to Cart

January 2013


$35.00 Add to Cart

About the Book

When the U.S. government ended its relationship with dozens of Native American tribes and bands between 1953 and 1966, it was engaging in a massive social experiment. Congress enacted the program, known as termination, in the name of “freeing” the Indians from government restrictions and improving their quality of life. However, removing the federal status of more than nine dozen tribes across the country plunged many of their nearly 13,000 members into deeper levels of poverty and eroded the tribal people’s sense of Native identity. Beginning in 1973 and extending over a twenty-year period, the terminated tribes, one by one, persuaded Congress to restore their ties to the federal government. Nonetheless, so much damage had been done that even today the restored tribes struggle to overcome the problems created by those terminations a half century ago.
Roberta Ulrich provides a concise overview of all the terminations and restorations of Native American tribes from 1953 to 2006 and explores the enduring policy implications for Native peoples. This is the first book to consider all the terminations and restorations in the twentieth century as part of continuing policy while detailing some of the individual tribal differences. Drawing from Congressional records, interviews with tribal members, and other primary sources, Ulrich delves into the causes and effects of termination and restoration from both sides.

Author Bio

Roberta Ulrich is a retired newspaper reporter. She is the author of Empty Nets: Indians, Dams, and the Columbia River.


"Rich in facts and easy to read, the book details a little noticed chapter of present-day Indian politics of the USA."—AmerIndian Research

“Highly recommended”—Choice

“For the general reader, [this book] provides a good overview of termination and its reversal and demonstrates how these factors influenced Indian identity.”—Western Historical Quarterly

“Clearly laid out and very readable.”—Indian Country Today

Table of Contents

List of Illustrations
Prologue: The Experiment
Part One - Breaking the Ties
1. Policy: Kill the Indians
2. Menominees: Ambush
3. Klamaths: Disaster
4. Western Oregon: Invisible
5. Alabama-Coushattas of Texas and Catawbas of South Carolina: Entangled
6. Utah Paiute Bands: Helpless
7. California: Scattered
8. Oklahoma Tribes and Ponca of Nebraska: Afterthoughts
Part Two: The Way Back
9. Menominees: Pioneers
10. Siletz: Fish
11. Oklahoma and Utah: Flood
12. Cow Creeks and Grand Rondes: Communities
13. Klamaths: Troubles
14. Coos and Coquilles: Cooperating
15. Alabama-Coushattas and California: Legalities
16. Catawbas and Poncas: Last
17. Epilogue: Results
Appendix: Terminated Tribes and Restoration

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