About the Book
Professional intelligence became a permanent feature of the French state as a result of the army’s June 8, 1871, reorganization following France’s defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. Intelligence practices developed at the end of the nineteenth century without direction or oversight from elected officials, and yet the information gathered had a profound influence on the French population and on pre–World War I Europe more broadly.
In Marianne Is Watching Deborah Bauer examines the history of French espionage and counterespionage services in the era of their professionalization, arguing that the expansion of surveillance practices reflects a change in understandings of how best to protect the nation. By leading readers through the processes and outcomes of professionalizing intelligence in three parts—covering the creation of permanent intelligence organizations within the state; the practice of intelligence; and the place of intelligence in the public sphere—Bauer fuses traditional state-focused history with social and cultural analysis to provide a modern understanding of intelligence and its role in both state formation and cultural change.
With this first English-language book-length treatment of the history of French intelligence services in the era of their inception, Bauer provides a penetrating study not just of the security establishment in pre–World War I France but of the diverse social climate it nurtured and on which it fed.
“A powerful book on an important subject. Marianne Is Watching is both a political history of intelligence as a potential force multiplier in international affairs and a social history of fin-de-siècle France. This is a very impressive piece of work.”—Martin Thomas, editor of The French Colonial Mind, Volumes 1 and 2
“Marianne Is Watching contributes to the emergence of a new total military history. Bauer’s combination of meticulous multi-archival research and her ability to fuse government archives and popular writing about espionage makes her work a major advance. Connecting the internal history of military and civilian intelligence to the broader politics of the regime provides fresh insights into how military and official culture and politics shaped the life of the Third Republic. This is important work.”—Andrew Orr, author of Women and the French Army during the World Wars, 1914–1940
Table of Contents
List of Illustrations
Part 1. The Creation of Permanent Intelligence Organizations
1. Intelligence in History: The Beginnings of Modern Espionage
2. A Place of Its Own: Professionalizing Intelligence in the French Army
3. Intelligence Communities: Police, Diplomats, and the Militarization of Intelligence
Part 2. The Practice of Intelligence
4. Enemies, Allies, Empire: The Stories Intelligence Tells
5. Defining Espionage and Prosecuting Spies: National Defense and the April 1886 Espionage Law
6. Countering Espionage: The Expansion of Domestic Surveillance, National Defense, and the Foreigner
Part 3. Intelligence in the Public Sphere
7. Identifying Spies and Protecting the Nation: Constructing Insiders and Outsiders through Public Participation
8. Raison d’état: Espionage, Surveillance, and Limitations for the Nation
Appendix: April 18, 1886, Law Regulating Espionage (French and English)