Information Operations


Information Operations

Warfare and the Hard Reality of Soft Power

Leigh Armistead

240 pages


May 2004


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September 2011


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About the Book

The modern means of communication have turned the world into an information fishbowl and, in terms of foreign policy and national security in post-Cold War power politics, helped transform international power politics. Information operations (IO), in which time zones are as important as national boundaries, is the use of modern technology to deliver critical information and influential content in an effort to shape perceptions, manage opinions, and control behavior. Contemporary IO differs from traditional psychological operations practiced by nation-states, because the availability of low-cost high technology permits nongovernmental organizations and rogue elements, such as terrorist groups, to deliver influential content of their own as well as facilitates damaging cyber-attacks (“hactivism”) on computer networks and infrastructure. As current vice president Dick Cheney once said, such technology has turned third-class powers into first-class threats.

Conceived as a textbook by instructors at the Joint Command, Control, and Information Warfare School of the U.S. Joint Forces Staff College and involving IO experts from several countries, this book fills an important gap in the literature by analyzing under one cover the military, technological, and psychological aspects of information operations. The general reader will appreciate the examples taken from recent history that reflect the impact of IO on U.S. foreign policy, military operations, and government organization.

Author Bio

Lt. Cdr. Edwin L. Armistead, USN, is a naval flight officer and former instructor at the Joint Forces Staff College. He is a graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy, and the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force Command and Staff Colleges, and he is a doctoral candidate at Edith Cowan University. Armistead has published two books on the Navy's early warning aircraft and numerous articles in professional journals. He lives in Virginia Beach, Virginia.

Table of Contents

List of IllustrationsForeword – Dr. Dan Kuehl, Information Resources Management College, NDUAcknowledgements Introduction The First Battle of a New Kind of War Electronic Disturbance Theatre The Basis for the Book Chapter 1 - Foundations - The Language of Information Operations Power - What is Power? Power in the Cold War Era - What has changed? Military Power and Asymmetric Threats Information Operations Theory IO Theory and Doctrine Differences between IW and IO The Evolution of IO Doctrine Information Operations Organizations Top-Level Leadership IO and the Interagency Process DOD - OSD and IO DOD - Combat Support Agencies The NSA's IO Architecture The DISA's IO Architecture DOD - The Joint Staff and IO The CCs Additional DoDIO Elements Cabinet IO Interests Department of State IO Concerns Traditional DOS Structure DOC IO ArchitectureDOJ IO Architecture Transnational IO Groups SummaryChapter 2 - Intelligence Support – Foundations for Conducting IO The Application of IO The Intelligence CycleThe Intelligence Community IO and the IPBThe Releaseability Issues of IOConclusionChapter 3 –Information Protection- The Challenge to Modern Bureaucracies Defensive Information Operations Information Assurance and Computer Network Defense A View of Defensive Information Operations Counter-Terrorism Information Operations What is Terrorism?Combating Terrorism Fundamentals of CTIO PDD-62 (Counter-Terrorism) Domestic Counter-Terrorism Operations Partnerships for Counter-Terrorism: “Track Two Diplomacy” PDD-63 (Critical Infrastructure Protection) SummaryChapter 4 –Information Projection - Shaping the Global Village Offensive Information Operations Computer Network Attack Space and its Relationship with IO The Relationship Between EW and IOPerception ManagementHistory of IPI Outside Influences on IPI What is IPI? What was the Clinton Administration attempting to do with IPI?Why has IPI been "less than successful?'Current Bush Administration Efforts IO in Operation Enduring Freedom The Structure of the OEF Coalition OEF ObjectiveConclusion Chapter 5 – Related & Supporting Activities/Organize, Train, and Equip IO Planning Military IW Service Centers IO Planning ToolsStrategy-to-Task Planning Tying together Strategy-to-Task Planning and IO Planning Tools IO and JOPESOPLAN, TPFDD and the IO Cell IO Cell Responsibilities IO as an Integrating StrategyLegal Issues Connected with IO An Overview of the Legal LandscapePeacetime Treaties Impacting IO Law of Armed Conflict Domestic LawThe Solution for the Operator: IO ROE PlanningSummary of IO Planning and Legal IO ConcernsChapter 6 – Implementing IO/Recent Campaigns The Growing Role of Information in RussiaInformation SuperiorityInformation SpaceRussian IW Terminology and Theory Informational-Psychological Military-Technical Systemological Aspects IO in Kosovo The Use/Misuse of IO in Operation Noble Anvil An IO After-Action Report How an IO Campaign may have succeeded Information Warfare and the People's Republic of ChinaChinese IO as a Warfighting Network What is the future of IO in China? Introduction to IO in Australian Defence Forces The Evolution of IO and Related Concepts in Australia The Australian Doctrinal Approach to IO The Australian Experience of IO – Two Case Studies Bougainville - Background IO Contribution to Operation BELISI East Timor - Background IO Contribution to Operation STABILISE Lesson Learned and Directions ForwardSummaryConclusion: What is the Future of Information Operations? APPENDIX A – National IO Organization APPENDIX B – IO Acronyms APPENDIX C – IO and JOPES Contributor's Biographies Endnotes

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