In the Name of the Salish and Kootenai Nation


In the Name of the Salish and Kootenai Nation

The 1855 Hell Gate Treaty and the Origin of the Flathead Indian Reservation

Edited by Robert Bigart and Clarence Woodcock

176 pages
21 pencil portraits


January 1996


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About the Book

On July 16, 1855, eighteen leaders of the Flathead, Kootenai, and Upper Pend d'Oreilles Indians signed an agreement with the United States government, ceding their title to almost all the land in western Montana and establishing the Flathead Indian Reservation. Born of confusion and disagreement, the Hell Gate Treaty is the legal basis for the modern relationship between the tribes and the federal government.
In the Name of the Salish & Kootenai Nation reproduces the complete text of the Hell Gate Treaty and collects previously published documents relating to the treaty, among them the official proceedings of the treaty council, Gustavus Sohon's portraits of many of the treaty signers, and letters from the Jesuit priest, Adrian Hoecken, who was present at the treaty deliberations. These documents are presented in the hope that they will inspire further questions and  research.

Author Bio

Robert Bigart is Librarian Emeritus at Salish Kootenai College in Pablo, Montana, on the Flathead Indian Reservation and has written extensively on the history of the Montana Salish Indians. Clarence Woodcock was the Director of the Salish-Pend d'Oreille Culture Committee, St. Ignatius, Montana, until July 1995 and has since passed away.

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